Type (A to F) of Adverse Drug Reaction

  • A (augmented): common dose-related reaction, related to a pharmacological action of the drug, predictable and with low mortality.
  • B (bizarre): uncommon non-dose-related reaction, not related to a pharmacological action of the drug, unpredictable and with high mortality.
  • C (chronic): uncommon dose- and time-related reaction related to the cumulative dose.
  • D (delayed): uncommon reaction occurring sometime after the use of the drug, usually dose-related.
  • E (end of use): uncommon reaction that occurs soon after withdrawal of the drug.
  • F (failure): common dose-related unexpected failure of therapy reaction, often caused by drug interactions.


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